The human brain has undergone tremendous evolution to develop into the powerhouse of function and skills it is today. What do scientists and philosophers think about this incredible feat?

Reluctant Revolutionary: Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution

An Ugly Little Secret Charles Darwin had a very dark secret, one made all the darker because he was a moneyed gentleman of polite society, a man of scientific leisure, and one with ties to England's governmental, religious, financial and...
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A Conversation With Joseph LeDoux

One of the world's leading experts in the neurobiology of emotion, Dr. LeDoux has garnered many accolades for his basic research into how the brain processes fear. Using clever conditioning experiments, he and his colleagues have been able to show...
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Inside the Minds of Animals

Clever Hans As the story is told, sometime late in the first decade of the twentieth century, a retired German mathematics teacher named Wilhelm von Osten discovered an odd thing about his horse. He had reason to believe that this...
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Brain Evolution: Expanding Our Minds

The irony of the theory of evolution is that evolution’s spectacular success in creating complex biological systems was historically the reason that this theory was so difficult to accept. It is difficult to imagine how a random sequence of miscues,...
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